Interfacing 16×2 Character LCD Module with Arduino
Blaze Display Technology Co., Ltd. | Updated: Nov 27, 2018
As the name suggests, these LCDs are ideal for displaying only characters. A 16×2 character LCD, for example, can display 32 ASCII characters across two rows.
If you look closely, you can see tiny rectangles for each character on the screen as well as the pixels that make up a character. Each of these rectangles is a grid of 5×8 pixels.
Character LCDs are available in a variety of sizes and colors, including 16×1, 16×4, 20×4, white text on a blue background, black text on a green background, and many more.
One advantage of using any of these displays in your project is that they are “swappable,” meaning that you can easily replace them with another LCD of a different size or color. Your code will need to be tweaked slightly, but the wiring will remain the same!
16×2 Character LCD Pinout
Before we get into the hookup and example code, let’s check out the pinout. A standard character LCD has 16 pins (except for an RGB LCD, which has 18 pins).
VCC is the LCD’s power supply and is typically connected to 5 volts.
Vo (LCD Contrast) pin controls the contrast of the LCD. Using a simple voltage divider network and a potentiometer, we can make precise contrast adjustments.
RS (Register Select) pin is used to separate the commands (such as setting the cursor to a specific location, clearing the screen, etc.) from the data. The RS pin is set to LOW when sending commands to the LCD and HIGH when sending data.
R/W (Read/Write) pin allows you to read data from or write data to the LCD. Since the LCD is only used as an output device, this pin is typically held low. This forces the LCD into WRITE mode.
E (Enable) pin is used to enable the display. When this pin is set to LOW, the LCD ignores activity on the R/W, RS, and data bus lines; when it is set to HIGH, the LCD processes the incoming data.
D0-D7 (Data Bus) pins carry the 8 bit data we send to the display. To see an uppercase ‘A’ character on the display, for example, we set these pins to 0100 0001 (as per the ASCII table).
A-K (Anode & Cathode) pins are used to control the backlight of the LCD.
Testing a Character LCD
Now comes the exciting part: testing the LCD.
To begin, connect the Arduino’s 5V and GND pins to the breadboard power rail and plug your LCD into the breadboard.
The LCD has two separate power connections: one for the LCD (pins 1 and 2) and one for the LCD backlight (pins 15 and 16). Connect LCD pins 1 and 16 to GND and 2 and 15 to 5V.
Depending on the manufacturer, some LCDs include a current-limiting resistor for the backlight. It is located on the back of the LCD, close to pin 15. If your LCD does not contain this resistor or if you are unsure whether it does, you must add one between 5V and pin 15. It should be safe to use a 220 ohm resistor, although a value this high may make the backlight slightly dim. For better results, check the datasheet for the maximum backlight current and choose an appropriate resistor value.
Let’s connect a potentiometer to the display. This is necessary to fine-tune the contrast of the display for best visibility. Connect one side of the 10K potentiometer to 5V and the other to Ground, and connect the middle of the pot (wiper) to LCD pin 3.
That’s all. Now, turn on the Arduino. You will see the backlight light up. As you turn the potentiometer knob, you will see the first row of rectangles appear. If you have made it this far, Congratulations! Your LCD is functioning properly.